Mangroves cover the major parts of the sanctuary. This holds the richest mangrove vegetation in India with 3 species of Avicennia, 3 species of Khizophora etc. In total there are 55 species of mangrove flourishing in Bhitarknika, out of 58 species so far recorded in India. The coastal sand dunes are covered by Casuriana plantations. Reptiles are the prominent species. The salt-water crocodile is the top predator. The sanctuary holds the largest crocodiles up to 22 feet long. The coastal sand serves as the nesting ground of millions of Olive Ridley sea turtles which stay from the month of November to April, in ever year .The other common reptiles are 3 species of monitor lizards including Salvator, King Cobra, Python branded Krates and Water snakes. Other animals include Panther, Fishing Cut, Hyena, Percupine, Wild Pigs, Sambar, and Chital Rehsus monkey. Large numbers of migratory birds including maximum number of bar headed geese settle in the lands and mud flats for watering.